RFID vs. NFC: What’s the Difference?

RFID vs. NFC: What’s the Difference?

If you follow developments in the tech industry on a semi-regular basis, you’re likely familiar with the terms near-field communication (NFC) and radio frequency identification (RFID). Recently, you may have seen RFID in the news, or you may have been told that your cell phone is an NFC device. In any case, this article will answer a few questions you may have about RFID and NFC.

Originally published on April 22, 2013 and updated on October 11, 2013: To help illustrate the differences between NFC and RFID, we created this neat infographic: Click here to download.

What are the differences between NFC and RFID, or are they even different at all?

Short Answer:
RFID is the process by which items are uniquely identified using radio waves, and NFC is a specialized subset within the family of RFID technology. Specifically, NFC is a branch of High-Frequency (HF) RFID, and both operate at the 13.56 MHz frequency. NFC is designed to be a secure form of data exchange, and an NFC device is capable of being both an NFC reader and an NFC tag. This unique feature allows NFC devices to communicate peer-to-peer.

Long Answer:
By definition, RFID is the method of uniquely identifying items using radio waves. At a minimum, an RFID system comprises a tag, a reader, and an antenna. The reader sends an interrogating signal to the tag via the antenna, and the tag responds with its unique information. RFID tags are either Active or Passive.

Active RFID tags contain their own power source giving them the ability to broadcast with a read range of up to 100 meters. Their long read range makes active RFID tags ideal for many industries where asset location and other improvements in logistics are important.

Passive RFID tags do not have their own power source. Instead, they are powered by the electromagnetic energy transmitted from the RFID reader. Because the radio waves must be strong enough to power the tags, passive RFID tags have a read range from near contact and up to 25 meters.

Passive RFID tags primarily operate at three frequency ranges:

  • Low Frequency (LF) 125 -134 kHz
  • High Frequency (HF)13.56 MHz
  • Ultra High Frequency (UHF) 856 MHz to 960 MHz

Near-field communication devices operate at the same frequency (13.56 MHz) as HF RFID readers and tags. The standards and protocols of the NFC format is based on RFID standards outlined in ISO/IEC 14443, FeliCa, and the basis for parts of ISO/IEC 18092. These standards deal with the use of RFID in proximity cards.

As a finely honed version of HF RFID, near-field communication devices have taken advantage of the short read range limitations of its radio frequency. Because NFC devices must be in close proximity to each other, usually no more than a few centimeters, it has become a popular choice for secure communication between consumer devices such as smartphones.

Peer-to-peer communication is a feature that sets NFC apart from typical RFID devices. An NFC device is able to act both as a reader and as a tag. This unique ability has made NFC a popular choice for contactless payment, a key driver in the decision by influential players in the mobile industry to include NFC in newer smartphones. Also, NFC smartphones pass along information from one smartphone to the other by tapping the two devices together, which turns sharing data such as contact info or photographs into a simple task. Recently, you may have seen advertising campaigns that used smart posters to pass information along to the consumers.

Also, NFC devices can read passive NFC tags, and some NFC devices are able to read passive HF RFID tags that are compliant with ISO 15693. The data on these tags can contain commands for the device such as opening a specific mobile application. You may start seeing HF RFID tags and NFC tags more frequently in advertisements, posters, and signs as it’s an efficient method to pass along information to consumers.

At the end of the day, NFC builds upon the standards of HF RFID and turns the limitations of its operating frequency into a unique feature of near-field communication.

Do you have an NFC enabled smartphone? Leave a comment below telling us if you have or haven’t used your phone’s NFC capabilities. If you’re interested in purchasing NFC tags, atlasRFIDstore now carries several varieties.

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About James Thrasher

James is a contributor to RFIDinsider and the Digital Marketing Manager for atlasRFIDstore. When he's not following the latest news in tech, James is probably watching a basketball game. He currently resides in Birmingham, AL with his wife.

  • Timuric

    Sounds like an awesome technology, I have it on my phone, but I never used it. There are so few applications for it

  • Anwarul Haque

    RFID Vs NFC

  • genus11

    Will NFC reader in the android smartphone read any HF RFID tags? Or does NFC reader in the smartphone require only ISO 14443A/B compliant tags?

    is there a big difference in price btw HF RFID and NFCs?

    • James Thrasher

      It will read some HF RFID tags, but it depends on the protocol. I would recommend reading the NFC Android developer information specific to your phone to find out which protocols your phone will read.

      Here’s a list of standard protocols most Android phones will read:

      NFC-A (ISO 14443-3A)
      NFC-B (ISO 14443-3B)
      NFC-F (JIS 6319-4)
      NFC-V (ISO 15693)
      ISO-DEP (ISO 14443-4)
      NDEF
      MIFARE
      MIFARE Ultralight

      • Raj Sarkar

        What RIM is using ? when apple is expected to roll out its NFC capable handsets?

        • James Thrasher

          I’m not sure what BlackBerry uses in their phones, but I would recommend visiting their developer website for that information.

          Apple seems to be content using Bluetooth Low-Energy technology at the moment, so I’m not sure if they’ll add NFC any time soon. If and when Apple adds NFC, it will be huge for the industry.

      • Stewart Hughes

        hi, do u know the types of 125 khz tags? or readers? like 10 digit, 15 digit… and etc..

        • James Thrasher

          I’m not very familiar with low frequency RFID readers and tags. I know it’s possible to purchase very cheap LF RFID reader modules.

      • Android Developer

        why are there so many standards ? are there advantages and disadvantages for each?
        is it maybe one that became better each time in some way?

        • The different protocols exist for various different reasons. Many companies just developed their own standards, which were then adopted. Other protocols were designed to meet very stringent security measures. The advantages and disadvantages will depend on the application.

          • Android Developer

            so, when I see that a device has NFC, I can’t assume it supports all of them?
            I don’t think any company even bothers listing those standards. Only write “NFC” and that’s it.

  • Edson Duarte

    Nice development
    tool, I´d like to know which kind of equipment and parts are necessary to start
    one project like this one.

    I am
    working with new technologies to give support to people that have physical
    limitations (ex. blind people), so I believe that the NFC is a good tool.

    • James Thrasher

      At a minimum, you’ll need the following:
      1. NFC Reader
      2. NFC Tag
      3. Middleware/Software

      You can piece these items together separately, or you can purchase a development kit which includes everything you need to start creating your own solution.

      Here’s a link to a popular dev kit: http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/SkyeTek_Gemini_NFC_Reader_Module_Development_Kit_p/ev-gm-00.htm

      • Edson Duarte

        James

        How Can I write the information into TAG?
        Does each TAG need to be written or each TAG has a code in?

        I checked this TAG (SMARTRAC Midas NFC Wet Inlay (NXP NTAG203) the kit that you gave the number is able to work with in?

        tks

        • James Thrasher

          NFC tags come with a unique ID, and you can rewrite the ID with an NFC reader.

          The development kit includes an NFC reader module and sample software that will allow you to read and write NFC tags. The SkyeTek NFC Reader Module is able to read/write the SMARTRAC Midas NFC Inlay among most all other NFC tags.

          Alternatively, you could use an NFC enabled mobile device to read/write NFC tags, but you’ll need to make sure you have an application on the device which can read/write NFC tags.

          Here’s a link to an NFC app for Android devices: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.nxp.nfc.tagwriter

  • Guest

    Is it possible to a device that use RFID and NFC at the same time?

  • Guest

    Is it possible to have a device that use RFID and NFC at the same time?

    • atlasRFIDstore

      Since High-frequency RFID and NFC both operate at the 13.56 MHz frequency, you may be able to find a reader that can read both HF RFID and NFC, but that would be dependent on the protocols.

      • Stewart Hughes

        can an NFC detect an RFID chip? of other frequences?

        • James Thrasher

          An NFC reader can only read an HF RFID tag at the 13.56 MHz frequency, and even still, it’s on a case-by-case basis.

          • Stewart Hughes

            thanks.

          • hardik

            hello sir we are going to make employee tracking system for that we are using rfid reader and that read rfid tag…
            so we required the rfid reader which is read the tag within range of 1 or 2 meter so according to which rfid reader we have to buy (cost within 4000).that can read the tag…

          • atlasRFIDstore

            All of our UHF RFID readers are class 1 Gen 2 and can read all of our UHF tags. So the key to your application will be how do you plan to tag the employees, and what specific tag that you decide upon after testing. The tricky part of your application is tagging people. Because the human body consists of 60% water, the water in the body attenuates the signal if the tag is too close. Please answer the following questions to help me recommend a reader for testing:
            1. How do you plan to tag the employees? (lanyard, key fob)
            2. Are you looking to have someone scan the employees with a handheld reader, or do you want a fixed reader setup at an entrance that autonomously reads the tag?
            3. How many read points/read zones will you need?
            4. How many employees do you plan to read at one time?
            5. Do you plan to add this reader to a network? I look forward to your answers.

  • Abdulkader

    nice topic, can I put an RFID reader or Tag, that once the smart phone passes through command it to open an application or something, usign an app that already installed in that phone, i.e I install an app called x, once i get in a room with the RFID tag/reader my phone open music player, once I’m out it turns of the music player?

    • James Thrasher

      Yes, you could use NFC tags to start and stop applications.

      • Abdulkader

        yeah but nfc requires close proximity so it won’t work i dont need the user to touch the NFC tag to trigger the action just pass by let’s say proximity with 20-30 inches

        • James Thrasher

          Sorry, I misunderstood your initial question. Your scenario is possible, but it wouldn’t be very practical with RFID.

          If you set-up an RFID system in the room, and you place a UHF RFID tag on your phone, you’ll still need to figure out a way to communicate a command to your phone in order to open an application.

          I think you should research Bluetooth Low-Energy. It’s my understanding that as long as the user has previously downloaded and opened the app on their phone, you should be able to launch the app in the background.

          Hope that helps.

  • Sami Siddiq

    Will an rfid reader also be able to read an nfc tag ?

    • James Thrasher

      It’s possible, but you need to make sure the reader operates at 13.56 MHz and can read the correct NFC protocols.

  • Aadi Mishra

    How can i interface RFID with Android? What are the modules that i require and what is the suitable software i should use?

    Also Do i have to make any external circuit for above or In-built NFC will be enough?

    • James Thrasher

      1. If you want to read UHF RFID tags, a few companies make external attachments for iOS and Android devices. Here’s an example: http://www.tsl.uk.com/products/1128-bluetooth-handheld-uhf-rfid-reader/

      2. I’m not sure I fully understand your second question, but if you want to read NFC tags, the Android device’s internal NFC reader will read most NFC tags. If you just want to be able to read the UHF tag, the UHF reader attachment will come with demo software.

  • Abu Saleh Muhammad Jubair

    WorkDaddy is the best application for office/corporate
    management in Android platform. Fully compatible with RFID/NFC cards. Can keep
    attendance calculate working hour, plan event and also if the user requires
    WorkDaddy can generate salary. But the salary generation plugin is not built in
    in Google Play version. As per the user demand it can be added. WorkDaddy is
    available in Google Play. Try it now. Trust me its worthy of downloading.

  • D.

    James thank you for your article! Would that be possible to code an app that could translate protocol between an active RFID tag and a NFC-enabled Smartphone reader ? I need to find a way to bridge common nfc reader with active RFID tags – pref without any hardware add-on… not sure it’s clearly explained but hope you’ll understand. Thanks a ton! D.

    • James Thrasher

      Well, if you could find an active RFID tag which internally uses NFC as a data bridge, than it would work. Your idea is possible, but you have to find a tag which is both Active RFID and NFC, and I’m not sure that exists.

      For example, this active tag ( http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/Omni_ID_Power_400_Active_RFID_Development_Kit_p/omni-ps-kit.htm ) uses passive RFID to write information to the tag. That’s why the kit includes a passive UHF reader.

  • Mitul Bhanushali

    hi i am new with android and i am reading RFID tag with android smartphone, but i have question . Is there necessary for RFID tag reading —>” the device is having NFC service” ? , if no then how i read RFID tag without NFC enable device?

  • Lance Johnson

    Great article James. My question is how close would I need to be to a passive RFID chip to detect it with my NFC enabled phone?

    • James Thrasher

      NFC has a max read range of only a few centimeters.

      However, I just want to clarify and add that your NFC enabled phone mostly likely isn’t going to be able to read passive RFID chips. RFID typically comes in three flavors:
      1. UHF – Ultra High Frequency
      2. HF – High Frequency
      3. LF – Low Frequency

      Now, it’s possible that your phone could read a select group of HF RFID tags, but your phone won’t be able to read UHF or LF tags.

  • Inder

    how to limit the reading of NFC tag only by the authentic reader.

    • James Thrasher

      Usually, the software encodes the NFC tag will allow you to lock the tag making it “read-only.”

      Now, if you only want your readers to read the tags, an option would be making sure the information on your tag is only valuable to your system, and only your system could interpret the information. For example, if someone else were to read the tag, they would only see a useless string of numbers.

  • Kier Natividad

    where can i find an NFC Reader ? sir

  • Charles

    Hi, great article. I was just wondering, assuming for a second the HF RFID (13.56 MHz) is the protocol that the Android NFC reader can read, is the range the same as it would be from NFC to NFC, namely a few cm’s, or would the range now be bigger since the NFC reader is reading RFID. Thanks

    • James Thrasher

      HF RFID tags generally have the same read range as NFC tags.

  • nfc compatible phones

    nice article. thankyou for posting nfc compatible phones

    • atlasRFIDstore

      No problem! Thanks for reading, if you have any questions in the future don’t hesitate to contact us at info@atlasrfidstore.com.

  • Basheer

    Hi James, Good article, is there any open source available for Encoding certain information like Emp ID, Name to a RFID tag by using Android based NFC reader.

    Regards
    Basheer

  • Rick Duin

    I have been researching for some time the benefits and capabilities of NFC/BLE within Iphone/Android phones. However, I still can’t find a direct answer of how to use Specifically NFC to activate an application within a 4-5 foot proximity then stay connected for a variable amount of time, then disconnect once the distance is exceeded. if you could offer any insight it would be appreciated.

    • Well, you’ll have to rule out NFC in this case. By design, NFC only has a read range of a few centimeters.

      I don’t know if it’s possible, but I believe you’re on the right path with BLE. The best advice I can give is to look at the developer information for phones and their operating systems.

  • Charles

    James, thanks for the interesting article. Can an android smartphone act as a passive RFID card, such that I could essentially replace my access card with my phone? Thanks

    • Yes and no, NFC enabled smartphones can emulate an NFC tag and a few passive HF RFID tags, but you’d have to test and see if you’d be able to replicate your access card.

      • qianzhi long

        James, thanks for your article. Is it possible to use smartphone to emulate a RFID tag and RFID reader read some infomation from the phone (not ID)?

        • Yes, it is possible for certain smartphones to emulate an NFC tag. However, you need to look at the development information provided by the smartphone manufacturer to see if you can share additional information.

          • qianzhi long

            Thank you very much. Does Android SDK provide the functions which share additional infomation to *RFID* reader?

          • Yes, Android and the device manufacturer will both outline the specifications of the device’s NFC capabilities.

  • Guest

    difference between NFC Module and NFC Shield

  • Karthikeyan Vj

    can anyone please explain me the difference between NFC Module and NFC Shield

  • Karthikeyan Vj

    can anyone explain me the difference between nfc module and nfc shield

    • A module is something that will interface with the board via cables. A shield will sit directly on top and connect via pins. The shield takes up less space, but comes with other difficulties.

  • suraj

    Hi guys,
    I’m developing an NFC based attendance system which can read both NFC tags and NFC enabled phone. So if I use a RFID module (MFRC-522) can it be used to have peer to peer connection between the reader and an NFC enabled phone?

    • It really depends on the protocols the module supports. You’ll have to refer to the available documentation on both the module and phone operating systems.

  • Rohit Kumar

    is it possible for an android app to read the data from a RFID reader. If the later consists of some path detecting algorithms. Thank you

    • It’s possible, but the RFID reader would likely need to send the data to a intermediary web server, and the app would pull data from that server. Via Bluetooth/WiFi, you might be able to connect a mobile device and RFID reader directly, but it might require proprietary hardware/software.

      As an example, I would look at this RFID reader that connects via Bluetooth with mobile devices: http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/tsl-1128-bluetooth-uhf-rfid-reader-902-928-mhz/

  • Andrew Goh

    Hi James, Can I create and send a unique RFID tag to a smartphone? Would you know if there are any apps out there that can do this?

    • Could you explain what you mean by sending a unique RFID tag to a smartphone? I typically recommend the TSL reader attachment that works with smartphones, but I’m not sure if that’s your question.

      Here’s the smartphone RFID reader attachment: http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/tsl-1128-bluetooth-uhf-rfid-reader-902-928-mhz/

      • Andrew Goh

        Thanks James for the prompt reply. I’m still learning about RFID, yes ive seen that reader. My question is can I create a specific/unique RFID and transmit or send it via SMS, email or through other chat channels and then when the recipient opens that RFID TAG, it is imbedded into his mobile device and a reader will be able to read it

        • Most NFC enabled mobile devices have a card emulation mode, so that an NFC reader could read the tag ID associated with the mobile device.

  • Gus Tanudji

    Are you aware of any addon device that can be plugged into smartphone/tablets to allow the smartphone/table be a strong reader in order to read active RFID tags?

    • Many active tags will have a passive tag that acts as a data bridge, so with something like the http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/tsl-1128-bluetooth-uhf-rfid-reader-902-928-mhz/, you’d be able to read/write the data on the active tag. However, I don’t know of a smartphone/tablet device that will read the active tag as it’s beaconing. Typically, you would use the mobile device to access a web app tied into the active tag system.

      • Gus Tanudji

        Thanks James.

        Okay if I only wanted to read passive tags; do normal smartphone/tables that are capable of NFC have the ability to read passive tags without any additional addon devices? And you said it that the distance between the smartphone/tablet and the passive tags can be up to 25m.

        So, with the link you gave me above, this is a bluetooth reader. The reader reads active tags up to 100m away, and sends the data via bluetooth to the smartphone, tablets, or laptos. Is that right? Is there a less bulkier option or a cheaper option?

        Can you explain more or do you have an article re: “you would use the mobile device to access a web app tied into the active tag system”. What is the architecture here? Who reads the tag here?

  • Gus Tanudji

    James,

    I have a requirement where items are being moved around in a large location (over 100m++ radius). And ideally we want to use passive tags (smaller and cheaper) placed on these items). Someone with a smartphone walks into the vicinity of the building/carpark, and be able to track where items are.

    With passive tags, we may have to install readers every 25 meters??? And what is the protocol or architecture for the data to be stored on a web application?

    Thank you very much!

  • Gehanne Zghondy Abi Rached

    Hello James,
    What is the difference between ISO 14443/3A/4 and ISO 15693? Can the same reader reads all tags whether it is 14443 or 15693.
    Thank you,
    Gehanne

    • atlasRFIDstore

      ISO 15693 is the protocol for vicinity cards, which has a read range of up to 1m.

      ISO 14443/3A/4 is the protocol for proximity cards, which has a read range of up to a few centimeters.

      Both protocols operate on the 13.56 Mhz frequency; however, you will need to check with the device manufacturer to see if the reader is capable of working with specific protocols.

    • ISO 15693 is the protocol for vicinity cards, which has a read range of up to 1m.

      ISO 14443/3A/4 is the protocol for proximity cards, which has a read range of up to a few centimeters.

      Both protocols operate on the 13.56 Mhz frequency; however, you will need to check with the device manufacturer to see if the reader is capable of
      working with specific protocols.

  • jean louis lafayeedney

    hi james, is it possible to have a RFID tag receive data from the reader which can then be displayed electronically such as a position in a race or time elapsed since starting said race etc? does it need to be an “active” tag or 2-way communication?, thanks v much

    • Yes, an RFID reader writes and reads data to and from a passive RFID tag, so in that way, it is two-way communication.

      However, in your example, you simply need the reader to detect the RFID tag and log the timestamp, and then the reader paired with software can calculate elapsed time, position, etc. You can accomplish all of this with passive RFID technology.

      If you would rather skip the “build-it-yourself” method, I would recommend looking at this RFID race timing system: http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/atlas-rfid-race-timing-system/

      Also, we’ve created several guides about race timing with RFID: http://www.atlasrfidstore.com/rfid-resources/

      Hope that helps.

  • Don Bouressa

    Hi James, Is there a NFC application that will work for ID cards such as HID?

    • It depends on the protocols and frequency for that specific HID card. Even if you know that information, you might not be able to use the card if you don’t know how to interpret it’s data, which is likely encrypted to a certain extent.

  • Edward

    Hi James
    Few months ago I bougth a Samsung Galaxy Camera 2, It has a NFC part in one side of the camera but I can’t use it to rea or write nay kinf od NFC tangs. I try to read a circus tang that I bougth from your company I can’t read anything
    It’s just letme share photos to others smart phones
    Could you explain me please why I can read ord write a nfc tag please?
    Thanks

    • It’s possible that Samsung has locked down the NFC capabilities for the camera. However, since it runs Android, you might be able to find workarounds.

      Have you tried downloading any NFC apps from the app store?

  • jerry

    are the nfc reader is stand alone?

  • Liam

    I was wondering if you could copy the RFID from a low frequency tag and move the information to a HF RFID card? And if you can, would the card work at a reader designed for a low frequency RFID reader?

    • Well, you could probably copy the information from one to the other, but a LF RFID reader will not be able to read the HF RFID card.

      The data doesn’t really matter in this situation. It’s the different radio frequencies.

  • drar

    are NFC chip capable to pings a NFC smartphone with NFC set as off?

    • If I understand your question correctly, the smartphone’s NFC features must be turned on to read any chips.

  • Chirag Mangal

    Hey
    I want to develop ain which I want to read RFID tags using my android device. is it possible or if it is then what things i need. Please reply

  • Chirag Mangal

    Hi again
    will you please tell me difference between NDEF and HEx format. as i have to buy reader that can read RFID tags .please reply
    and if you can suggest me any reader and RFId tags link to purchase then it will be great helpfull for me
    Thanks

    • Marco Bruno F. Vasconcellos

      I suggest you to use NDEF, it also compatible with Windows Phone

  • Kedjereaktion

    Can anyone say if it is possible to download an RFID-tag or NFC tag into the Android smartphone so that it can be used to open doors

  • Soha Eid

    Can xperia v (LT25i) scan RFID TAG 13.56 MHz by its NFC??

    • Yes, the Xperia V is NFC capable, but you’ll need to refer to the manufacturer’s specifications to learn which protocols the phone is compatible with.

      • Soha Eid

        Thanks james..But i can’t reach to the device manufacturer to know if xperia v supports NFC (15693) format or not ?!! That’s to be capable of scanning RFID TAG 13.56MHz ?? can u help me?

        • NFC is 13.56 MHz, so the phone should be able to read those tags. I still recommend contacting the manufacturer or searching their development guides to learn which protocols the device is compatible with.

  • Thompson Gasper

    Can RFID tag perform micro payment transport fare for buses and taxis….?
    Regards

  • Istvan Kovacs

    Maybe a stupid question: is there a microchip that can operate on low and high frequency as well? 1 chip 2 frequencies.

    • Definitely not a stupid question.

      Dual frequency tags exist in the market, but are difficult to source.

      Send us an email at info@atlasrfidstore.com, and we’ll see if we can find some for you.

  • madair_nx

    Hi James, I’m using a NFC 13.56MHz reader that support ISO14443 A/B protocols. Is there a way to use it to read 13.56MHz ISO15693-2,-3 tags? So far, when I use it with my Arduino and NDEF library it doesn’t recognize the tag. I’m trying to know if it would work with another library or if I can only read ISO14443 tags. Many thanks!!

    • That’s a tough question to answer. I know most Android devices would be able to support both protocols, but for your specific reader, you’ll have to find the developer’s documentation if possible.

  • Erwin Lassooy

    Hi, I’m a complete novice in the field and not much of a techie. Have the following challenge and hope someone can guide me. We are implementing a tap-and-pay cashless payment system in a disability hospital in Tanzania. Which technology is most suited and why?

    • NFC has the proper payment protocols to ensure security, so that would be the route you’d take.

  • Vic Hakabi

    good day, i need to confirm if i am using nfc tags for payment, it possible that on a same tags the rfid reader can detect also for monitoring purposes.? like nfc tags can i use for both nfc and rfid reader???thank you

    • Yes, you could still use the tag’s ID for identification purposes, but keep in mind the read range of NFC only reaches a few centimeters.

  • Lugina Qolby Janari

    hwaa thank you so much, this info really really helps me.

  • Mae

    is there any possibility that RFID or NFC will be put in an android phone where we can do a coding on it. and there no need for other hardware staff?